Juggling videos can be used to spread misinformation. Here’s how you can say the video is DeepFake or ShallowFake.
Videos of manipulation are becoming more widespread online and often spreading misinformation and misinformation.
False information is when a person deliberately shares or misrepresents information, but misinformation is shared with the intent to deceive.
Some altered videos may appear harmless, for example celebrities appear to be stunts. At other times, there may be a bad motive behind the videos – when copying the resemblance of a world leader for political or propaganda purposes.
There are many types of doctoral videos that can spread false information. Two of the most common are Deepfakes and Shalofakes. DeepFake Video is made using artificial intelligence technologies, such as programs that can be used to change or synthesize the expression of faces, speech or emotions.
Shalofaxes are created using the simple video editing software used to roughly edit existing videos.
Here are four key points to consider when analyzing a video, and here are three examples of fact-checking DeepFake and Shalofake videos that we use to highlight key elements.
4 Important Factors for Identifying False Videos
Here are the questions you should ask yourself when deciding whether a video is true or fake:
- Motion – How is the content moving in the video? Do their body language and facial expressions look odd?
- Background – What is the background like? Is it ambiguous, fixed, or is it out of place?
- Source – What is the source of the video? Does the video have a watermark or logo?
- Context – Is there enough context to explain what’s going on in the video? Does the historical context coincide with what you are looking for?
In each of the three examples below, the VERIFY team used key elements along with online tools such as RevEye, InVid and TinEye to determine if these videos were fake.
Example 1: President Joe Biden Shalofake Video
This video shows President Joe Biden authorizing a fourth trigger review, but the president never did. The video is actually a shallow duplicate, because it was raw edited using real footage of Biden.
Video footage is edited from Biden’s speech at the United Nations Climate Change Conference COP26 in November 2021. How do we know this video is false:
- Movement: The president’s movements are slow and his lips don’t match.
- Background: Flags and platform codes are similar to those seen in CSPAN coverage from the COP26 Summit. If Biden authorizes the fourth exciting review, he will make it to the White House, not at a COP26 summit-like event.
- Source: The White House never officially released the footage – it was shared on a non-political Facebook page.
- Occasion: Congress and the White House have repeatedly pushed back against the idea of a fourth trigger review, so a video showing Biden authorizing one is unlikely.
Read more: The video, which claims to show Biden authorizing a new round of trigger checks, is fake
Example # 2: Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky Deepfake
The video, which has been deleted from most major social media sites, has been deleted since Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky originally announced the rights to show citizens calling for Russia to surrender in March. The video was sophisticated deepfake and has since gone viral on social media worldwide after it was shared by the Russian state media. Here’s how we know it’s fake:
- Movement: In the manipulated video, Zelensky’s body never moves while speaking.
- Background: The backstory is consistent, it seems like he didn’t move. This suggests that, in addition to his body language, the video may have originated from the still image manipulation.
- Source: The origin of the video is unknown, but some Ukrainian networks broadcast it on television in the country. Zelenskyy posted daily updates on his social media accounts and this video has not appeared on any official government channels.
- Occasion: Prior to the start of the war in Ukraine, US officials warned that Russian operatives could use misinformation or deep information, such as deepfakes. Experts have warned the public to be wary of videos posted on social media. Zelinsky, who repeatedly encouraged his people to fight, is unlikely to call for surrender.
Read more: No, the video demanding the surrender of Ukrainian President Zelensky is not true. This is DeepFake
Example # 3: Celebrities Respond to Will Smith-Chris Rock Slap Deepfakes
- Movement: In this case, we are looking for color and image enhancements. In both videos the jaw is colored, and the faces are digitally modified to look younger.
- Background: The videos showed the same background – a bookshelf loaded with CDs. Although these celebrities may run in the same circles, they are unlikely to record their responses in the same room.
- Source: These videos were posted to Twitter, but originally from @themanofmanyvoices from their ticktalk account, which, according to his account, is a famous Impressionist.
- Occasion: Is Morgan Freeman or Clint Eastwood the type to post a video to social media to respond to Smith Rock? Probably not.
Read more: Don’t fall into this kind of celebrity deepfakes
MIT Media Lab, a research laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, offers these additional tips to help diagnose deepfakes:
- Pay attention to the eyes and eyebrows. Do shadows appear in places you expect?
- Pay attention to the glasses. Is there any glow? Is it too bright? Does the angle of glare change as the person moves?
- Pay attention to facial hair or lack thereof. Does this facial hair really look good? Deepfakes can add or remove a mustache, sideburns or beard
- Pay attention to the blinking. Does the person blink too much or too much?
- Pay attention to the size and color of the lips. Does the size and color match the rest of the person’s face?
If you have questions or just want to confirm something, the Verify team is here for you. If you would like the team to review any claims you see or hear online, send your questions to @ verifythis.com.
Related: No, the video of Tom Cruise jumping on Keegan-Michael Key is not true. This is DeepFake